This is a course in the foundations of quantum mechanics, half theory,
half experiment. We will traffic in superposition, entanglement, and
environmental decoherence. *The Quantum Challenge* by Greenstein
and Zajonc will be our guide:

- We start with Chapters 1-2 on wave-particle duality. Some surprises await, despite the neat stories told in intro quantum textbooks.
- As interlude, we will review the basic formalism of quantum mechanics.
- Chapters 5-6 of Greenstein and Zajonc cover entanglement along with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and Bell's theorem, which get to the heart (or lack thereof) of local reality in quantum mechanics.
- Chapters 7-8 discuss decoherence and the measurement problem, one of the thorniest oustanding issues in quantum mechanics. We will approach decoherence through Schrödinger's original statement of the cat paradox and recent experiments on "cat" states in the lab.

In parallel with these discussions, we will run experiments with entangled photons, demonstrating the particle nature of the photon, single-photon interference, and violation of Bell's inequality.

- George Greenstein and Arthur G. Zajonc,
*The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics*, second edition (2006). - Eleanor Rieffel and Wolfgang Polak,
*Quantum Computing: A Gentle Introduction*(2011).

- Richard Feynman, Messenger Lectures (1964).
- R. Bach, D. Pope, S. Liou, and H. Batelaan, "Controlled electron double-slit diffraction" and Build-up of the intereference pattern (2012).
- L. DuBridge, "Theory of the Energy Distribution of Photoelectrons" (1933).
- Grangier, Roger, and Aspect, "Experimental evidence for a photon anticorrelation effect on a beamsplitter" (1986).
- J.J. Thorn et al., "Observing the quantum behavior of light in an undergraduate laboratory" (2004).
- E.J. Galvez et al., "Interference with correlated photons: Five quantum mechanics experiments for undergraduates" (2004).
- A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, "Can quantum-mechanical description of reality be considered complete?" (1935).
- J. Bell, "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox" (1964).

- The Galvez lab at Colgate have links to papers, videos, lab manuals, and software. For layout and alignment of our optics, we will lean on the schematics in the handout from the ALPhA Immersion Prof. Wensley attended in 2015. For troubleshooting, you may like "In the dark abyss: No photon magic."
- The Beck lab at Whitman have executed a number of relevant experiments and built the LabView scripts we will use for coincidence counting.

- Posted February 23. Due February 28.
- Posted February 28. Due March 2.
- Posted March 2. Due March 7.
- Due March 16: Rieffel and Polak problems 2.1-2.8.
- Solutions to Rieffel and Polak Chapter 2 problems.
- Posted March 22. Due March 28.
- Solutions to problems due March 28.
- Posted March 31. Due April 4.
- Posted April 12. Due April 18/20. You will also need the data from Guy and Miles's experiment.
- Solutions to the midterm.
- Posted April 28 . Due May 2/4.